Spring Cloud Gateway简单入门,强大的微服务网关

1 简介

见名知义,Spring Cloud Gateway是用于微服务场景的网关组件,它是基于Spring WebFlux,也就是Reactive的。从实现原理上,它的性能应该是比Zuul会更好。

它的工作原理如下图所示:

Spring Cloud Gateway简单入门,强大的微服务网关

简单而言就是通过一连串的Filter处理匹配到特定规则Predicates的请求。所以最主要就是做了两件事:

(1)哪些请求可以被它处理,由Predicates决定;

(2)如何处理,由Filters决定。

2 路由条件判断Predicates

2.1 时间匹配After

表示在什么时间之后才算满足条件匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: after_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - After=2020-01-20T17:42:47.789-07:00[America/Denver]

2.2 时间匹配Before

表示在什么时间之前匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: before_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Before=2017-01-20T17:42:47.789-07:00[America/Denver]

2.3 时间段匹配Between

表示在什么时间段匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: between_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Between=2017-01-20T17:42:47.789-07:00[America/Denver], 2017-01-21T17:42:47.789-07:00[America/Denver]

2.4 Cookie匹配

表示通过判断Cookie的键值来匹配路由,其中值支持正则表达式:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: cookie_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Cookie=chocolate, ch.p

2.5 请求头匹配Header

表示通过判断Http请求的Header来匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: header_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Header=X-Request-Id, d+

2.6 主机名匹配Host

通过判断Hostname来匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: host_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Host=**.somehost.org,**.anotherhost.org

2.7 请求方法匹配Method

表示通过判断请求方法来匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: method_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Method=GET,POST

2.8 请求路径匹配Path

表示通过判断请求路径来匹配路由,很常用:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: path_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Path=/red/{segment},/blue/{segment}

2.9 请求参数匹配Query

表示通过判断请求参数来匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: query_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Query=red, gree.

2.10 IP地址匹配RemoteAddr

表示通过判断IP地址来匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: remoteaddr_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - RemoteAddr=192.168.1.1/24

2.11 权重匹配Weight

通过权重来匹配路由:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: weight_high
        uri: https://weighthigh.org
        predicates:
        - Weight=group1, 8
      - id: weight_low
        uri: https://weightlow.org
        predicates:
        - Weight=group1, 2

3 功能强大的GatewayFilter

Spring提供许多强大的GatewayFilter对请求进行处理。

3.1 添加请求头

给请求添加Header

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: add_request_header_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Path=/red/{segment}
        filters:
        - AddRequestHeader=X-Request-Red, Blue-{segment}

3.2 添加请求参数

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: add_request_parameter_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Host: {segment}.myhost.org
        filters:
        - AddRequestParameter=foo, bar-{segment}

3.3 添加返回Header

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: add_response_header_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Host: {segment}.myhost.org
        filters:
        - AddResponseHeader=foo, bar-{segment}

3.4 删除重复返回Header

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: dedupe_response_header_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - DedupeResponseHeader=Access-Control-Allow-Credentials Access-Control-Allow-Origin

3.5 断路器Hystrix

简单配置:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: hystrix_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - Hystrix=myCommandName

较复杂配置:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: hystrix_route
        uri: lb://backing-service:8088
        predicates:
        - Path=/consumingserviceendpoint
        filters:
        - name: Hystrix
          args:
            name: fallbackcmd
            fallbackUri: forward:/incaseoffailureusethis
        - RewritePath=/consumingserviceendpoint, /backingserviceendpoint

3.6 断路器CircuitBreaker

简单配置:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: circuitbreaker_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - CircuitBreaker=myCircuitBreaker

较复杂配置:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: circuitbreaker_route
        uri: lb://backing-service:8088
        predicates:
        - Path=/consumingServiceEndpoint
        filters:
        - name: CircuitBreaker
          args:
            name: myCircuitBreaker
            fallbackUri: forward:/inCaseOfFailureUseThis
        - RewritePath=/consumingServiceEndpoint, /backingServiceEndpoint

3. 7 请求头改名

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: map_request_header_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - MapRequestHeader=Blue, X-Request-Red

3.8 路径添加前缀

这个要注意和匹配路径区分,它是在匹配后再加个前缀:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: prefixpath_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - PrefixPath=/mypath

请求/hello变成/mypath/hello

3.9 重定向

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: prefixpath_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - RedirectTo=302, https://acme.org

3.10 删除请求头

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: removerequestheader_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - RemoveRequestHeader=X-Request-Foo

3.11 删除返回头

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: removeresponseheader_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - RemoveResponseHeader=X-Response-Foo

3.12 删除请求参数

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: removerequestparameter_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - RemoveRequestParameter=red

3.13 重写路径

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: rewritepath_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Path=/red/**
        filters:
        - RewritePath=/red(?<segment>/?.*), ${segment}

3.14 设置路径

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: setpath_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Path=/red/{segment}
        filters:
        - SetPath=/{segment}

3.15 设置请求头

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: setrequestheader_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Host: {segment}.myhost.org
        filters:
        - SetRequestHeader=foo, bar-{segment}

3.16 设置返回头

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: setresponseheader_route
        uri: https://example.org
        predicates:
        - Host: {segment}.myhost.org
        filters:
        - SetResponseHeader=foo, bar-{segment}

3.17 设置返回状态码

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: setstatusstring_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - SetStatus=BAD_REQUEST
      - id: setstatusint_route
        uri: https://example.org
        filters:
        - SetStatus=401

3.18 去掉路径前缀

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: nameRoot
        uri: https://nameservice
        predicates:
        - Path=/name/**
        filters:
        - StripPrefix=2

这配置请求/name/blue/red,实际就是请求nameservice/red,去掉两个前缀。

3.19 重试Retry GatewayFilter

想不到居然还有强大的重试功能:

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: retry_test
        uri: http://localhost:8080/flakey
        predicates:
        - Host=*.retry.com
        filters:
        - name: Retry
          args:
            retries: 3
            statuses: BAD_GATEWAY
            methods: GET,POST
            backoff:
              firstBackoff: 10ms
              maxBackoff: 50ms
              factor: 2
              basedOnPreviousValue: false

3.20 请求大小限制

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: request_size_route
        uri: http://localhost:8080/upload
        predicates:
        - Path=/upload
        filters:
        - name: RequestSize
          args:
            maxSize: 5000000

3.21 默认Filter

如果希望对所有路由都生效,可以添加默认Filter

spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      default-filters:
      - AddResponseHeader=X-Response-Default-Red, Default-Blue
      - PrefixPath=/httpbin

4 全局Global Filters

全局过滤器GlobalFilter接口和GatewayFilter的方法是一样的,但它是用于所有路由的。当请求过来时,整个Filter Chain是包含了所有的GlobalFilters和匹配上的GatewayFilters,执行顺序由getOrder()方法决定。

如下:

@Bean
public GlobalFilter customFilter() {
    return new CustomGlobalFilter();
}

public class CustomGlobalFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {

    @Override
    public Mono<Void> filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        log.info("custom global filter");
        return chain.filter(exchange);
    }

    @Override
    public int getOrder() {
        return -1;
    }
}

5 一切皆可自定义

Spring支持开发人员自定义PredicateGatewayFilterGlobalFilter

5.1 自定义Predicate

public class MyRoutePredicateFactory extends AbstractRoutePredicateFactory<HeaderRoutePredicateFactory.Config> {

    public MyRoutePredicateFactory() {
        super(Config.class);
    }

    @Override
    public Predicate<ServerWebExchange> apply(Config config) {
        // grab configuration from Config object
        return exchange -> {
            //grab the request
            ServerHttpRequest request = exchange.getRequest();
            //take information from the request to see if it
            //matches configuration.
            return matches(config, request);
        };
    }

    public static class Config {
        //Put the configuration properties for your filter here
    }
}

5.2 自定义GatewayFilter

Pre的过滤器:

public class PreGatewayFilterFactory extends AbstractGatewayFilterFactory<PreGatewayFilterFactory.Config> {

    public PreGatewayFilterFactory() {
        super(Config.class);
    }

    @Override
    public GatewayFilter apply(Config config) {
        // grab configuration from Config object
        return (exchange, chain) -> {
            //If you want to build a "pre" filter you need to manipulate the
            //request before calling chain.filter
            ServerHttpRequest.Builder builder = exchange.getRequest().mutate();
            //use builder to manipulate the request
            return chain.filter(exchange.mutate().request(builder.build()).build());
        };
    }

    public static class Config {
        //Put the configuration properties for your filter here
    }
}

Post的过滤器:

public class PostGatewayFilterFactory extends AbstractGatewayFilterFactory<PostGatewayFilterFactory.Config> {

    public PostGatewayFilterFactory() {
        super(Config.class);
    }

    @Override
    public GatewayFilter apply(Config config) {
        // grab configuration from Config object
        return (exchange, chain) -> {
            return chain.filter(exchange).then(Mono.fromRunnable(() -> {
                ServerHttpResponse response = exchange.getResponse();
                //Manipulate the response in some way
            }));
        };
    }

    public static class Config {
        //Put the configuration properties for your filter here
    }
}

5.3 自定义GlobalFilter

@Bean
public GlobalFilter customGlobalFilter() {
    return (exchange, chain) -> exchange.getPrincipal()
        .map(Principal::getName)
        .defaultIfEmpty("Default User")
        .map(userName -> {
          //adds header to proxied request
          exchange.getRequest().mutate().header("CUSTOM-REQUEST-HEADER", userName).build();
          return exchange;
        })
        .flatMap(chain::filter);
}

@Bean
public GlobalFilter customGlobalPostFilter() {
    return (exchange, chain) -> chain.filter(exchange)
        .then(Mono.just(exchange))
        .map(serverWebExchange -> {
          //adds header to response
          serverWebExchange.getResponse().getHeaders().set("CUSTOM-RESPONSE-HEADER",
              HttpStatus.OK.equals(serverWebExchange.getResponse().getStatusCode()) ? "It worked": "It did not work");
          return serverWebExchange;
        })
        .then();
}

6 项目使用

添加依赖:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-gateway</artifactId>
</dependency>

配置Main启动应用:

package com.pkslow.cloud.gateway;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class GatewayService {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(GatewayService.class, args);
    }
}

配置路由:

server:
  port: 8080
spring:
  cloud:
    gateway:
      routes:
      - id: pkslow
        uri: https://www.pkslow.com
        predicates:
        - Path=/pkslow/**
        filters:
        - RewritePath=/pkslow(?<segment>.*), /${segment}

启动后可正常访问了:

Spring Cloud Gateway简单入门,强大的微服务网关

Spring Cloud Gateway简单入门,强大的微服务网关

7 总结

Spring Cloud Gateway实在是非常强大,能满足微服务绝大多数应用场景了,还是很有必要了解一下的。

代码请查看:
https://github.com/LarryDpk/pkslow-samples

内容出处:,

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